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 Syllabus of Soil Science Discipline

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I_ku



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Join date : 2009-11-11

PostSubject: Syllabus of Soil Science Discipline   Tue Nov 17, 2009 9:46 am

SOIL
SCIENCE DISCIPLINE


KHULNA UNIVERSITY


Course for 4th Year B.Sc. (Hons.) in Soil Science


Effective
from academic session: 1998-1999









4th Year 1st Term





Course No
Course Title



Hours/Week

Credit hours

Theory

Sessional
Core Course



SS-4101

Soil
Survey and Land Evaluation


3-0

-

3.0

SS-4102

Soil
Survey and Land Evaluation Sessional/Field work


-

0-3

1.5

SS-4103

Applied
Soil Physics


3-0

-

3.0

SS-4104

Applied
Soil Physics Sessional/Field work


-

0-3

1.5

SS-4106

Project
Thesis


-

0-6

3.0

SS-4107

Advanced
Soil Chemistry


3-0

-

3.0

SS-4108

Advanced
Soil Chemistry Sessional


-

0-3

1.5
Optional Course



*SS-4109

Advanced
Analytical Technique


3-0

-

3.0

*SS-4110

Advanced
Analytical Technique Sessional


-

0-3

1.5

*SS-4111

Soil
Technology


2-0

-

2.0

Total

5
Theory (2 Optional)+ 4 Sessional (1
Optional)


14-0

0-18

23.0











4th Year 2nd Term





Course No

Course Title

Hours/Week

Credit hours
Theory



Sessional
Core Course



SS-4201

Agricultural
Systems & Integrated Management


3-0

-

3.0

SS-4203

Biogeochemical
Cycling of Nutrients in Soils


3-0

-

3.0

SS-4205

Soil
Classification and Soils of Bangladesh


3-0

-

3.0

SS-4206

Soils
of Bangladesh
Sessional/Field work


-

0-3

1.5

SS-4207

Soil
Management


3-0

-

3.0

SS-4209

Irrigation
and Water Management


3-0

-

3.0
Optional Course



*CSE-4254

Computer
Programming Sessional


-

0-3

1.5

*SS-4211

Environmental
Management


3-0

-

3.0

Total

6
Theory (1Optional)+ 2 Sessional
(1Optional)


18-0

0-6

21.0





* At least one optional course must be taken form each
term. If such a course, has any sessional, that has also to be taken.














SS-4101: Soil survey and Land Evaluation (3 credit hours)






Section-A







1.
Definition and
importance of soil survey. Agricultural and non-agricultural uses of survey
data.






2.
Types of soil
survey. Techniques of reconnaissance and detailed soil survey.






3.
Principal
types of base material and their scale, merits and demerits. Interpretation and
uses of base materials especially aerial photograph and aerial mosaics soil
survey work plan.





Section-B







1.
Examination
and description of soils in the field. Collection of soil samples. Soil maps.
Unite of soil classification and mapping. The soil mapping legend. Plotting of
soil boundaries. Soil correlation and inspection. Soil grouping on the map.



2.
Soil Survey
report, soil survey interpretation for agricultural uses. Remote sensing; use
of remote sensing data for soil survey. Land evaluation, land use, land
capability and land cover classification. Land use in Bangladesh.








SS-4102: Soil survey and Land Evaluation Sessional/Field
work
(1.5
credit hours)









SS-4103: Applied Soil Physics (3 credit hours)




Section-A







Optimizing soil
physical environment for better plant growth. Basic principle of soil
mechanics. Basic concept of stress and strain. Modulus of elasticity,
Poission’s ratio. Stress at point, equilibrium equation and stress distribution
in soil. Pressure stress diagrams. Stress-strain relationship of soil.
Compaction: Distinction between consolidation and compaction. Process of
compaction, relationship between void ratio/porosity and pressure of
compaction. Effect of water content on compactability of soil. Compression and
expansion curve, co-efficient of compressibility and co-eficient of volume
change. Laboratory consolidation test: Calculation of void ratio and coefficient
of volume change. Effect of compaction on plant growth. Shear strength of soil:
Definition, factors affecting soil strength, Mohr’s cycle, Mohr-Coulomb failure
theory, laboratory determination of soil strength. Field water balance and its
management. Lysimeters: principle, type and performance. Evaporation and
Evapotranspiration. Steady state water flow equation in presence of ground
water talbe.





Section-B







Physical aspects of
soil management for rice-based cropping systems; effect of puddling on soil
physical properties; water balance in rice paddy fields; drainage of rice
fields; interacion of chemicals and water in paddy fields; evaluation of
physical environment for rice cultivation.



Load bearing capacity
of soil. Soil as a building material. Isotope and radiation technique in soil
physical and irrigation studies.











SS-4104: Applied Soil Physics Sessional (1.5 credit hours)








SS-4107: Advanced Soil Chemistry (3 credit hours)




Section-A







1. Fractionation
and characterization of N, P, K, S and micronutrients, factors controlling the
fraction, significance of individual fractions in crop production.



2. Isotopes
and Radiation



-
Stable and
Radioisotopes, their properties, isotopic series, characteristics of radiation.



-
Radiation
detection and measurement.



-
Principles of
trace methodology.



-
Use of
isotopes in study of soil fertility.



-
Use of
isotopes in soil organic matter research.



-
Use of
isotopes in ion uptake and translocation studies.





Section-B







1. Chemistry of waterlogged soils


-
Definition and characteristics of different waterlogged soils.



-
Electrochemical (redox potential, specific conductance, pH) changes due to
soil reduction.



-
Changes in transformation and availability of N, P, K, S Ca and Mg in submerged
soils.



-
Changes in transformation and availability of micronutrients in submerged
soils.



-
Changes during drying of waterlogged soils.



-
Physical changes of soils due to submergence.



-
Adaptation of plants to waterlogged soils.



-
Organic matter decomposition in submerged soils.






2. Chemical Equilibria in Soil.


- Basic concepts.


- Equilibria involving
sparingly soluble crystalline solids.



- Equilibria of N, P, K,
S, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb and As in soil.









SS-4108: Advanced Soil Chemistry Sessional (1.5 credit
hours)


SS-4109: Advanced analytical Technique (3 credit hours)




Section-A




Soil Physics:





1.
Particle size
and microaggregate analysis by combination of sieving and hydrometer method.



2.
Determination
of water stable aggregates by wet sieving.



3.
Evaluation of
mean weight diameter.



4.
Compaction and
soil strength.



5.
Determination
of infiltration rate.



6.
Evaluation of
USLE.






Soil Microbiology:





7.
Basic
laboratory techniques.



8.
Techniques for
isolation of pure cultures.



9.
Cultural
characteristics of microorganisms.



10.
Principle of
microscopy and their type. Description of bright field microscopy. Microscopic
examination of living bacterial preparation, measurement of microorganisms,
Bacterial staining (Simple staining, negative staining, Gram staining,
Acid-fast staining, Spore staining, capsule staining).



11.
Cultivation of
microorganisms [Nutritional requirements, physical factor (temperature, pH, O2),
Serial dilution, Bacterial growth curve).



12.
Microbiology
of water [Standard qualitative analysis of water, Quantitative analysis of
water (Membrane filter method)].



13.
Microbiology
of soil [Enumeration of microbial population in soil, Identification of
bacteria in soil, Purification and preservation of bacteria, Nitrogen cycle
(Ammonification, Nitrification, Denitrification and N-fixation)].





Section-B




Soil Chemistry:





14.
Concept of
analytical chemistry (Qualitative and Quantitative analysis).



15.
Common
procedures employed in the quantitative determination of chemical substances
(Gravimetric, Volumetric and Colorimetric analysis).



16.
Different
types of solutions (Standard solution preparation, Normal, Molar, Molal and ppm solution,
Preparation of standard solution from liquids).



17.
Equivalent
weight of acid, base, compounds, oxidizing and reducing agents.



18.
Primary and
secondary substances. Standardization of substances (Acid-base, Redox and other
solutions).



19.
Principle of
titrimetric analysis.



20.
Soil, Plant
and Water sampling.



21.
Determination
of Soil pH, EC, Eh and temperature.



22.
Cation
exchange capacity, PBS and SAR.



23.
Active acidity
and reserve acidity.



24.
Walkly and
Black’s wet oxidation method to determine soil organic carbon.



25.
Organic matter
fractionation and characterization of humic and fulvic acid by E4:E6
ratio and coagulation threshold. Tyrin’s method of organic carbon
determination.



26.
Fractionation
of nutrients in soil.



27.
Determination
of available nutrients in soil. Suitability of extractants.



28.
Soil buffer
curve and lime requirement of soil.



29.
Principle and
determination of Carbonate and bicarbonate (titrimetric), Chloride
determination (titrimetric), sulfur (titrimetric method), Phosphorus (yellow &
blue colour method), Potassium (flame photometric determination), Calcium &
magnesium (titrimetric), Iron (colorimetric).



30.
Working
principle of pH meter, EC meter, Distilled water plant, Spectrophotometer,
Flame photometer, Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Chromatographer.



31.
Use of isotope
in soil and plant analysis.



32.
Different
digestions and their principles.



33.
Scientific
investigations (Experimental design, lab report and thesis writing).










SS-4201:
Agricultural Systems & Integrated Management



Section-A


Agronomical Systems:


Tilth and tillage: Objective, Modern Concept of tillage system. Effect of tillage on soil.



Cropping system: Mixed, Intensive, Overlapping system of cropping, Inter cropping,
Parallel, Companion, Multistoried, Synergistic cropping system.


Analysis of competitive relations = Competitive, Complementary, Supplementary,
Mutual, Inhibition


Competition Functions


Cropping intensity,
Relative crowding Co-efficient, Competition Co-efficient, Aggressivity,
Competition index, Land equivalent ratio, Competition ratio, Calorie
equivalent, Multiple cropping index, Diversity index, Cultivated land
utilization index.


Agricultural Development Possibilities of Agro Ecological Zones of
Bangladesh



30 AEZ of Bangladesh and
sub regions, Soil fertility status, Development constraints, Ecological
hazards, Agricultural research needs,


Agricultural research organizations of Bangladesh and their programme


Programme of BARC, BINA, BARI, BRRI, SRDI, BTRI,
BFRI, BFIDC, BJRI, SRTI.





Section- B


Integrated Pest Management


Pest, Pest Management, Integrated Pest
Management. Principle, Conceptual framework for IPM, Things that should be done
in an IPM program. History of IPM, Ecosystem biodiversity and IPM, IPM tactics,
Resistance, Resurgence, Replacement. Biological Control, Behavioral control,
Environmental modification, Cultural management of pest, Host-plant Resistance-
Application of pest genetics in IPM, Index used in Pest management
decisions -Economic Threshold level, Decision making systems,


IPM programs:


Development and Implementation,
Constraints in IPM implementation, Goals of IPM, Major IPM strategies, Levels
of IPM & Integration, IPM program development, Key aspects of IPM program,
Examples of IPM program- Rice, Lettuce and Cotton, Economics of IPM, Importance
of IPM—Economic, Environmental and Social,


Integrated disease management.


Integrated management, Disease management,
Basic requirements for management of disease. Methods of control Biological
control – Approaches to biocontrol, problems and prospects of biological
control, Modification of environments for disease management. Integration of
disease management practices.








Recommended
Reference:



1. Cropping System-
B. N. Chatterjee, S. Maiti, Mandal


2. Agronomy : Theory and Digest-Cheema &
Dhaliwal.


3. Principle of
Agronomy – Reddy and Reddy


4. Agronomy –G. C.
De


5. Principles and
Practice of Agronomy – S. S. Singh


6. Handbook of
Agronomy – M. H. Kabir


7. Principles of
Agronomy – L. C. Pearson


8. Plant disease -
Singh


9. Concepts in
Integrated Pest Management – Robert F. Noris,
M. Kogan & C. Chen


10. Integrated Pest Management –G. S. Dhaliwal & R. AroraSS-4203:
Biogeochemical Cycling of Nutrients in Soils (3 credit hours)






Section-A





1. Common terminologies in biogeochemistry.


2. Population, Guild and Communities.


3. Objectives to study microbial ecology.


4. The microorganism and the microenvironment.


5. Surfaces and biofilms.


6. Nutrient levels and growth rates.


7. Microbial competition and cooperation.


8. Methods in microbial ecology.


9. Enrichment and isolation methods.


10. Soil as a microbial habitat.


11. Deep subsurface microbiology.


12. Aquatic habitats.


13. Deep sea microbiology.


14. Microorganisms in hydrothermal vents.








Section-B





1. Biogeochemistry of carbon cycle.


2. Biogeochemistry of nitrogen cycle.


3. Biogeochemistry of phosphorus cycle.


4. Biogeochemistry of sulfur cycle.


5. Biogeochemistry of iron cycle.


6. Biogeochemistry of manganese cycle.


7. Biogeochemistry of mercury and heavy metals.


8. Biodegradation of petroleum.


9. Biodegradation of xenobiotics.


10. Application of the knowledge of biogeochemistry.












SS- 4205: Soil Classification and Soils of Bangladesh (3 credit hours)





Section-A





1.
Definition and importance of soil classification.
Historical development of soil classification. Study of some major soil
classification systems of the world:- France, Canadian, British and Australian
systems.


2.
Detailed study of soil taxonomy and FAO/UNESCO soil
legend of the world. Tropical soils and
their classification. Classification of Bangladesh soils.








Section-B





1.
Agroecological regions of Bangldesh and thana agricultural guides
in Bangladesh.
Soil series and families in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh
soil resources in relation to agricultural development.









SS-4207:
Soil Management (3 credit hours)






Section-A





Object and principle of soil
management. Preparation of seabed. Maintenance of organic matter in soil.
Nitrogen economy of soils, organic manures: green manure, farms manuer, compost
and other organic manures [oil cakes, Blood meal, fish manure, wood wash,
Sewage and sludge, and Night soil]. Preparation of different types of mnures
and composts; importance of manure and composts in improving soil properties
and crop yield.





Concept of dry farming and
organic farming.





Section-B





Origin and nature of problem
soils; formation, properties, amelioration and management of various
problematic soils: Saline; alkali and acid soils; forest soils, sandy soils;
soils contaminated with pesticides and toxic inorganic substances; organic
soils, and acid sulfate soils.


















SS-4209:
Irrigation and Water Management (3 credit hours)






Section-A





The field water regime.
Field water balance. Infiltration – factors affecting infiltration; profile
moisture distribution during infiltration; infiltration models; methods of
measuring infiltration rate. Redistributing of water in soil profile; field
capacity concept.





Drainage – factors affecting
drainage; drainage equations. Drainage: Needs and benefits of drainage; types
of drainage – their advantages and disadvantages; drainage of coastal plains
and swamp lands.





Evaporation – factors
affecting evaporation; evaporation from bare soil. Evapotranspiration and
consumptive use of water; factors affecting evapotranspiration; methods of
measuring evapotranspiration; modeling of evapotranspiration and crop yield.








Section-B





Soil water-plant relations:
the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC); absorption of water by plant roots;
concepts of available water.





Irrigation: Sources and
quality of irrigation water; selection of land for irrigation; factors
affecting irrigation needs; amount and frequency of irrigation.





Soil and plant-water
parameters for determining irrigation needs; different irrigation systems their
suitability for different soils and crops; irrigation efficiency; effects of
irrigation on soil properties.





Irrigation needs of major
crops of Bangladesh;
irrigation systems and irrigation projects of Bangladesh.

































SS-4211:
Environmental Management (3 credit hours)






Section-A





1. Concept
of environmental management.


2. Overview of air pollution, air quality
standards, natural purification of air pollution, engineered systems for air
pollution control, preventing and reducing air pollution.


3. Overview of water pollution, water quality
standards, natural purification of water pollution, engineered systems for
water pollution control, preventing and reducing water pollution.


4. Solid waste definition and characteristics,
concept of solid waste management, engineered systems for solid waste
management, preventing and reducing solid waste pollution.








Section-B





  • Basic concept of Environmental Management.
  • Concept of Sustainable Environmental
    Management.
  • Environmental Economics and Management.
  • Public Policy, Policy Life cycle,
    Environmental Policy and decision making.
  • Environmental conventions, protocols,
    agreements and treaties.
  • Environmental laws of Bangladesh.
  • Basic concept and Methodologies of EIA.
  • Basic concept and procedures of
    Environmental Audit.
  • Bioremediation and Biotechnological
    approach in environmental management.
  • Arsenic pollution, severity and
    mitigation in Bangladesh.
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